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Research Methodology

Experimental Research Methods

❶Observation is heavily used in social sciences, behavioral studies and anthropology, as a way of studying a group without affecting their behavior.

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The temperature varies according to other variable and factors. You can measure different temperature inside and outside.

If it is a sunny day, chances are that the temperature will be higher than if it's cloudy. Another thing that can make the temperature change is whether something has been done to manipulate the temperature, like lighting a fire in the chimney. In research, you typically define variables according to what you're measuring. The independent variable is the variable which the researcher would like to measure the cause , while the dependent variable is the effect or assumed effect , dependent on the independent variable.

These variables are often stated in experimental research , in a hypothesis , e. In explorative research methodology, e. They might not be stated because the researcher does not have a clear idea yet on what is really going on. Confounding variables are variables with a significant effect on the dependent variable that the researcher failed to control or eliminate - sometimes because the researcher is not aware of the effect of the confounding variable.

The key is to identify possible confounding variables and somehow try to eliminate or control them. Operationalization is to take a fuzzy concept conceptual variables , such as ' helping behavior ', and try to measure it by specific observations, e. The selection of the research method is crucial for what conclusions you can make about a phenomenon. It affects what you can say about the cause and factors influencing the phenomenon. It is also important to choose a research method which is within the limits of what the researcher can do.

Time, money, feasibility, ethics and availability to measure the phenomenon correctly are examples of issues constraining the research.

Choosing the scientific measurements are also crucial for getting the correct conclusion. Some measurements might not reflect the real world, because they do not measure the phenomenon as it should.

To test a hypothesis , quantitative research uses significance tests to determine which hypothesis is right. The significance test can show whether the null hypothesis is more likely correct than the research hypothesis. Research methodology in a number of areas like social sciences depends heavily on significance tests.

A significance test may even drive the research process in a whole new direction, based on the findings. The t-test also called the Student's T-Test is one of many statistical significance tests, which compares two supposedly equal sets of data to see if they really are alike or not. The t-test helps the researcher conclude whether a hypothesis is supported or not. Drawing a conclusion is based on several factors of the research process, not just because the researcher got the expected result.

It has to be based on the validity and reliability of the measurement, how good the measurement was to reflect the real world and what more could have affected the results. Anyone should be able to check the observation and logic, to see if they also reach the same conclusions.

Errors of the observations may stem from measurement-problems, misinterpretations, unlikely random events etc. A common error is to think that correlation implies a causal relationship.

This is not necessarily true. Generalization is to which extent the research and the conclusions of the research apply to the real world. It is not always so that good research will reflect the real world, since we can only measure a small portion of the population at a time.

Validity refers to what degree the research reflects the given research problem, while Reliability refers to how consistent a set of measurements are.

A definition of reliability may be "Yielding the same or compatible results in different clinical experiments or statistical trials" the free dictionary. Research methodology lacking reliability cannot be trusted. Replication studies are a way to test reliability. Both validity and reliability are important aspects of the research methodology to get better explanations of the world.

Logically, there are two types of errors when drawing conclusions in research:. Type 1 error is when we accept the research hypothesis when the null hypothesis is in fact correct. Type 2 error is when we reject the research hypothesis even if the null hypothesis is wrong. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. This article defines and situates it, then looks at how to design a good action research project, how to ensure its validity, and the best vehicles of dissemination.

Finally, it looks at some useful sites on action research. Qualitative research techniques are becoming more and more important in management and social science research. Careful analysis can ensure the research has a depth not always present in quantitative research, while retaining rigour and validity. This guide covers how the process differs from that for quantitative data, principles of data collection, coding, theory building, use of CAQDAS software, and finally at some of the main techniques and methods used for qualitative analysis, from grounded theory to hermeneutics.

A survey is a structured method for gathering data from a large number of respondents. It is used as a social science research method, by businesses determining the likely success of products, and by pollsters considering the impact of a particular policy or the likely outcome of an election. In these pages we are specifically concerned with the use of surveys as a tool for scholarly research in management-related disciplines, or for those who may use surveys in their business consulting work.

We will also be focusing specifically on the design of the survey as a research enterprise. The questionnaire is one of the most widely used instruments in research in the management sciences; it is also commonly used in business for market research. Effectively used, it is a highly efficient tool for obtaining data of a both structured i. This feature is concerned with the choice of basic statistical analysis tools appropriate for academic research.

It does not pretend to be exhaustive, but aims to give broad direction, some definitions, and a starting point for those with little experience of statistical methods.

It does not go into any detail of how to apply the various tools, or perform the calculations, as these are best carried out by any of the range of statistical packages available as part of spreadsheet and database programs or as standalone tools. These pages are concerned with what in general terms is considered, from the point of view of rigour, the gold standard of research, the experiment, which is nevertheless something of a Cinderella in the management sciences.

We shall look first at what defines the experiment and what qualifies its use in management research, then in more detail at design issues, before exploring various types of experiment.

This is a huge topic, worthy of a whole monograph or text book, and we cannot here do more than provide some basic guidelines and tips. What we have also done is to provide some examples of research which has been published in the pages of Emerald journals, in the hope that this may provide inspiration as examples of good practice, or that you may see a particular methodology which you might consider applying to your own research.

All literature reviews should be more than a mere description of the current state of knowledge of an area, and should critically evaluate the theoretical positions and research studies, drawing attention to major debates. In this guide, Margaret Adolphus looks at how to write a literature review in the context of a research-based dissertation or scholarly paper and considers what constitutes a systematic, as opposed to a descriptive, literature review.

In this feature, we look at the use of secondary data, that is data that are not collected directly by observation, focus group or surveys. We start with a general look at the research methods associated with secondary data, examine the main types of secondary data and look at how to incorporate secondary data as part of a research design. Finally, where such data exist as part of public or private collections, we consider how to access them. These pages are concerned with data collection and preliminary analysis methods appropriate for academic research.

They do not pretend to be exhaustive, but aim to give broad direction, some definitions, and a starting point for those with little experience of statistical methods.

Types of Research

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In methodology chapter of your dissertation, you are expected to specify and discuss the type of your research according to the following classifications. General Classification of Types of Research Methods. Types of research methods can be broadly divided into two quantitative and qualitative categories.

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Observational research methods, such as the case study, are probably the furthest removed from the established scientific method. This type is looked down upon, by many scientists, as ‘quasi-experimental’ research, although this is usually an unfair criticism. Observational research tends to use nominal or ordinal scales of measurement.

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special interests include research methods in business and management (especially those reflecting a constructivist epistemology), personal construct psychology, and the transfer of knowledge across. Properly used, "mixed methods" research is a design methodology, a paradigm, and not just an arbitrary mix of qualitative and quantitative techniques. This article examines what the term means, why it has come into favour, its advantages and disadvantages, and some aspects of the execution of a mixed method design.

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Research Methods Vs Research Methodology Research methods are all those methods and techniques that are used for conduction of research. It refers to the methods the researchers use in performing research operations. Advancing Research Methodology in the African Context: Techniques, Methods, and Designs, Research Methodology in Strategy and Management, Research Methodology in Strategy and Management, Volume 2 Research Methodology in Strategy and Management,