His research work in cerebral anatomy led to the publication of an influential paper on the palliative effects of cocaine in and his work on aphasia would form the basis of his first book On the Aphasias: Over a three-year period, Freud worked in various departments of the hospital. His time spent in Theodor Meynert 's psychiatric clinic and as a locum in a local asylum led to an increased interest in clinical work. His substantial body of published research led to his appointment as a university lecturer or docent in neuropathology in , a non-salaried post but one which entitled him to give lectures at the University of Vienna.
In , Freud resigned his hospital post and entered private practice specializing in "nervous disorders". The same year he married Martha Bernays , the granddaughter of Isaac Bernays , a chief rabbi in Hamburg.
The couple had six children: From until they left Vienna in , Freud and his family lived in an apartment at Berggasse 19 , near Innere Stadt , a historical district of Vienna. The close relationship she formed with Freud led to rumours, started by Carl Jung , of an affair. The discovery of a Swiss hotel log of 13 August , signed by Freud whilst travelling with his sister-in-law, has been presented as evidence of the affair. Freud began smoking tobacco at age 24; initially a cigarette smoker, he became a cigar smoker.
He believed that smoking enhanced his capacity to work and that he could exercise self-control in moderating it. Despite health warnings from colleague Wilhelm Fliess , he remained a smoker, eventually suffering a buccal cancer.
Freud had greatly admired his philosophy tutor, Brentano, who was known for his theories of perception and introspection. Brentano discussed the possible existence of the unconscious mind in his Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint Although Brentano denied its existence, his discussion of the unconscious probably helped introduce Freud to the concept. Though Freud was reluctant to associate his psychoanalytic insights with prior philosophical theories, attention has been drawn to analogies between his work and that of both Schopenhauer  and Nietzsche , both of whom he claimed not to have read until late in life.
One historian concluded, based on Freud's correspondence with his adolescent friend Eduard Silberstein, that Freud read Nietzsche's The Birth of Tragedy and the first two of the Untimely Meditations when he was seventeen.
Freud read William Shakespeare in English throughout his life, and it has been suggested that his understanding of human psychology may have been partially derived from Shakespeare's plays. Freud's Jewish origins and his allegiance to his secular Jewish identity were of significant influence in the formation of his intellectual and moral outlook, especially with respect to his intellectual non-conformism, as he was the first to point out in his Autobiographical Study. In October , Freud went to Paris on a fellowship to study with Jean-Martin Charcot , a renowned neurologist who was conducting scientific research into hypnosis.
He was later to recall the experience of this stay as catalytic in turning him toward the practice of medical psychopathology and away from a less financially promising career in neurology research. Once he had set up in private practice in , Freud began using hypnosis in his clinical work. He adopted the approach of his friend and collaborator, Josef Breuer , in a use of hypnosis which was different from the French methods he had studied in that it did not use suggestion.
The treatment of one particular patient of Breuer's proved to be transformative for Freud's clinical practice. Described as Anna O. In the course of talking in this way these symptoms became reduced in severity as she retrieved memories of traumatic incidents associated with their onset.
The uneven results of Freud's early clinical work eventually led him to abandon hypnosis, having reached the conclusion that more consistent and effective symptom relief could be achieved by encouraging patients to talk freely, without censorship or inhibition, about whatever ideas or memories occurred to them. In conjunction with this procedure, which he called " free association ", Freud found that patients' dreams could be fruitfully analyzed to reveal the complex structuring of unconscious material and to demonstrate the psychic action of repression which, he had concluded, underlay symptom formation.
By he was using the term " psychoanalysis " to refer to his new clinical method and the theories on which it was based. Freud's development of these new theories took place during a period in which he experienced heart irregularities, disturbing dreams and periods of depression, a "neurasthenia" which he linked to the death of his father in  and which prompted a "self-analysis" of his own dreams and memories of childhood.
His explorations of his feelings of hostility to his father and rivalrous jealousy over his mother's affections led him to fundamentally revise his theory of the origin of the neuroses. On the basis of his early clinical work, Freud had postulated that unconscious memories of sexual molestation in early childhood were a necessary precondition for the psychoneuroses hysteria and obsessional neurosis , a formulation now known as Freud's seduction theory.
This transition from the theory of infantile sexual trauma as a general explanation of how all neuroses originate to one that presupposes an autonomous infantile sexuality provided the basis for Freud's subsequent formulation of the theory of the Oedipus complex. Freud described the evolution of his clinical method and set out his theory of the psychogenetic origins of hysteria, demonstrated in a number of case histories, in Studies on Hysteria published in co-authored with Josef Breuer.
In he published The Interpretation of Dreams in which, following a critical review of existing theory, Freud gives detailed interpretations of his own and his patients' dreams in terms of wish-fulfillments made subject to the repression and censorship of the "dream work".
He then sets out the theoretical model of mental structure the unconscious, pre-conscious and conscious on which this account is based. An abridged version, On Dreams , was published in In works which would win him a more general readership, Freud applied his theories outside the clinical setting in The Psychopathology of Everyday Life and Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious During this formative period of his work, Freud valued and came to rely on the intellectual and emotional support of his friend Wilhelm Fliess , a Berlin based ear, nose and throat specialist whom he had first met Both men saw themselves as isolated from the prevailing clinical and theoretical mainstream because of their ambitions to develop radical new theories of sexuality.
Fliess developed highly eccentric theories of human biorhythms and a nasogenital connection which are today considered pseudoscientific. He shared Freud's views on the importance of certain aspects of sexuality — masturbation, coitus interruptus , and the use of condoms — in the etiology of what were then called the "actual neuroses," primarily neurasthenia and certain physically manifested anxiety symptoms.
His first attempt at a systematic theory of the mind, his Project for a Scientific Psychology was developed as a metapsychology with Fliess as interlocutor. Freud had Fliess repeatedly operate on his nose and sinuses to treat "nasal reflex neurosis",  and subsequently referred his patient Emma Eckstein to him. According to Freud her history of symptoms included severe leg pains with consequent restricted mobility, and stomach and menstrual pains.
These pains were, according to Fliess's theories, caused by habitual masturbation which, as the tissue of the nose and genitalia were linked, was curable by removal of part of the middle turbinate. At first, though aware of Fliess's culpability — Freud fled from the remedial surgery in horror — he could only bring himself to delicately intimate in his correspondence to Fliess the nature of his disastrous role and in subsequent letters maintained a tactful silence on the matter or else returned to the face-saving topic of Eckstein's hysteria.
Freud ultimately, in light of Eckstein's history of adolescecent self-cutting and irregular nasal and menstrual bleeding, concluded that Fliess was "completely without blame", as Eckstein's post-operative hemorrhages were hysterical "wish-bleedings" linked to "an old wish to be loved in her illness" and triggered as a means of "rearousing [Freud's] affection". Eckstein nonetheless continued her analysis with Freud.
She was restored to full mobility and went on to practice psychoanalysis herself. Freud, who had called Fliess "the Kepler of biology", later concluded that a combination of a homoerotic attachment and the residue of his "specifically Jewish mysticism" lay behind his loyalty to his Jewish friend and his consequent over-estimation of both his theoretical and clinical work.
Their friendship came to an acrimonious end with Fliess angry at Freud's unwillingness to endorse his general theory of sexual periodicity and accusing him of collusion in the plagiarism of his work. After Fliess failed to respond to Freud's offer of collaboration over publication of his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality in , their relationship came to an end. In , Freud at last realised his long-standing ambition to be made a university professor. The title "professor extraordinarius"  was important to Freud for the recognition and prestige it conferred, there being no salary or teaching duties attached to the post he would be granted the enhanced status of "professor ordinarius" in With his prestige thus enhanced, Freud continued with the regular series of lectures on his work which, since the mids as a docent of Vienna University, he had been delivering to small audiences every Saturday evening at the lecture hall of the university's psychiatric clinic.
From the autumn of , a number of Viennese physicians who had expressed interest in Freud's work were invited to meet at his apartment every Wednesday afternoon to discuss issues relating to psychology and neuropathology.
Freud founded this discussion group at the suggestion of the physician Wilhelm Stekel. His conversion to psychoanalysis is variously attributed to his successful treatment by Freud for a sexual problem or as a result of his reading The Interpretation of Dreams , to which he subsequently gave a positive review in the Viennese daily newspaper Neues Wiener Tagblatt.
The other three original members whom Freud invited to attend, Alfred Adler , Max Kahane, and Rudolf Reitler, were also physicians  and all five were Jewish by birth. Kahane had attended the same secondary school and both he and Reitler went to university with Freud.
They had kept abreast of Freud's developing ideas through their attendance at his Saturday evening lectures. In it, he provided an outline of Freud's psychoanalytic method. Adler, regarded as the most formidable intellect among the early Freud circle, was a socialist who in had written a health manual for the tailoring trade. He was particularly interested in the potential social impact of psychiatry. Max Graf , a Viennese musicologist and father of " Little Hans ", who had first encountered Freud in and joined the Wednesday group soon after its initial inception,  described the ritual and atmosphere of the early meetings of the society:.
The gatherings followed a definite ritual. First one of the members would present a paper. Then, black coffee and cakes were served; cigar and cigarettes were on the table and were consumed in great quantities. After a social quarter of an hour, the discussion would begin. The last and decisive word was always spoken by Freud himself.
There was the atmosphere of the foundation of a religion in that room. Freud himself was its new prophet who made the heretofore prevailing methods of psychological investigation appear superficial. By , the group had grown to sixteen members, including Otto Rank , who was employed as the group's paid secretary.
In , reflecting its growing institutional status, the Wednesday group was renamed the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. In , the first women members were admitted to the Society.
Both women would go on to make important contributions to the work of the Russian Psychoanalytic Society founded in Freud's early followers met together formally for the first time at the Hotel Bristol, Salzburg on 27 April This meeting, which was retrospectively deemed to be the first International Psychoanalytic Congress,  was convened at the suggestion of Ernest Jones , then a London-based neurologist who had discovered Freud's writings and begun applying psychoanalytic methods in his clinical work.
There were, as Jones records, "forty-two present, half of whom were or became practicing analysts. Important decisions were taken at the Congress with a view to advancing the impact of Freud's work. Freud turned to Brill and Jones to further his ambition to spread the psychoanalytic cause in the English-speaking world. Both were invited to Vienna following the Salzburg Congress and a division of labour was agreed with Brill given the translation rights for Freud's works, and Jones, who was to take up a post at the University of Toronto later in the year, tasked with establishing a platform for Freudian ideas in North American academic and medical life.
The event, at which Freud was awarded an Honorary Doctorate, marked the first public recognition of Freud's work and attracted widespread media interest. Freud's audience included the distinguished neurologist and psychiatrist James Jackson Putnam , Professor of Diseases of the Nervous System at Harvard , who invited Freud to his country retreat where they held extensive discussions over a period of four days.
Putnam's subsequent public endorsement of Freud's work represented a significant breakthrough for the psychoanalytic cause in the United States. Brill founded the New York Psychoanalytic Society the same year. His English translations of Freud's work began to appear from From , Adler's views on topics such as neurosis began to differ markedly from those held by Freud. As Adler's position appeared increasingly incompatible with Freudianism, a series of confrontations between their respective viewpoints took place at the meetings of the Viennese Psychoanalytic Society in January and February In February , Adler, then the president of the society, resigned his position.
At this time, Stekel also resigned his position as vice president of the society. Adler finally left the Freudian group altogether in June to found his own organization with nine other members who had also resigned from the group. In the period after World War I, Adler became increasingly associated with a psychological position he devised called individual psychology. In , Jung published Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido published in English in as Psychology of the Unconscious making it clear that his views were taking a direction quite different from those of Freud.
To distinguish his system from psychoanalysis, Jung called it analytical psychology. Max Eitingon joined the Committee in Each member pledged himself not to make any public departure from the fundamental tenets of psychoanalytic theory before he had discussed his views with the others.
After this development, Jung recognised that his position was untenable and resigned as editor of the Jarhbuch and then as president of the IPA in April Later the same year, Freud published a paper entitled " The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement ", the German original being first published in the Jahrbuch , giving his view on the birth and evolution of the psychoanalytic movement and the withdrawal of Adler and Jung from it.
The final defection from Freud's inner circle occurred following the publication in of Rank's The Trauma of Birth which other members of the committee read as, in effect, abandoning the Oedipus Complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytic theory.
Abraham and Jones became increasingly forceful critics of Rank and though he and Freud were reluctant to end their close and long-standing relationship the break finally came in when Rank resigned from his official posts in the IPA and left Vienna for Paris.
His place on the committee was taken by Anna Freud. After the founding of the IPA in , an international network of psychoanalytical societies, training institutes and clinics became well established and a regular schedule of biannual Congresses commenced after the end of World War I to coordinate their activities.
The Poliklinik's innovations of free treatment, and child analysis and the Berlin Institute's standardisation of psychoanalytic training had a major influence on the wider psychoanalytic movement.
In Ernst Simmel founded the Schloss Tegel Sanatorium on the outskirts of Berlin , the first such establishment to provide psychoanalytic treatment in an institutional framework. Freud organised a fund to help finance its activities and his architect son, Ernst, was commissioned to refurbish the building. It was forced to close in for economic reasons. Freud's Russian followers were the first to benefit from translations of his work, the Russian translation of The Interpretation of Dreams appearing nine years before Brill's English edition.
The Russian Institute was unique in receiving state support for its activities, including publication of translations of Freud's works. In , he dissolved this organisation and, with its core membership purged of Jungian adherents, founded the British Psychoanalytical Society , serving as its president until The Institute of Psychoanalysis was established and the London Clinic of Psychoanalysis established in , both under Jones's directorship. The Vienna Ambulatorium Clinic was established in and the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute was founded in under the directorship of Helene Deutsch.
Psychoanalytic societies and institutes were established in Switzerland , France , Italy , the Netherlands , Norway and in Palestine Jerusalem, by Eitingon, who had fled Berlin after Adolf Hitler came to power. The Berlin Congress was the last Freud attended. He kept abreast of developments through a regular correspondence with his principal followers and via the circular letters and meetings of the secret Committee which he continued to attend. The Committee continued to function until by which time institutional developments within the IPA, such as the establishment of the International Training Commission, had addressed concerns about the transmission of psychoanalytic theory and practice.
There remained, however, significant differences over the issue of lay analysis - i. Freud set out his case in favour in in his The Question of Lay Analysis. He was resolutely opposed by the American societies who expressed concerns over professional standards and the risk of litigation though child analysts were made exempt. These concerns were also shared by some of his European colleagues.
Eventually an agreement was reached allowing societies autonomy in setting criteria for candidature. In Freud was awarded the Goethe Prize in recognition of his contributions to psychology and to German literary culture. Freud used pseudonyms in his case histories. In February , Freud detected a leukoplakia , a benign growth associated with heavy smoking, on his mouth. Freud initially kept this secret, but in April he informed Ernest Jones, telling him that the growth had been removed.
Freud consulted the dermatologist Maximilian Steiner, who advised him to quit smoking but lied about the growth's seriousness, minimizing its importance. Freud later saw Felix Deutsch, who saw that the growth was cancerous; he identified it to Freud using the euphemism "a bad leukoplakia" instead of the technical diagnosis epithelioma.
Deutsch advised Freud to stop smoking and have the growth excised. Freud was treated by Marcus Hajek, a rhinologist whose competence he had previously questioned. Hajek performed an unnecessary cosmetic surgery in his clinic's outpatient department.
Freud bled during and after the operation, and may narrowly have escaped death. Freud subsequently saw Deutsch again. Deutsch saw that further surgery would be required, but did not tell Freud that he had cancer because he was worried that Freud might wish to commit suicide.
In January , the Nazi Party took control of Germany, and Freud's books were prominent among those they burned and destroyed. Freud remarked to Ernest Jones: In the Middle Ages they would have burned me. Now, they are content with burning my books. This prospect and the shock of the arrest and interrogation of Anna Freud by the Gestapo finally convinced Freud it was time to leave Austria.
There were seventeen in all and work permits were provided where relevant. Jones also used his influence in scientific circles, persuading the president of the Royal Society , Sir William Bragg , to write to the Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax , requesting to good effect that diplomatic pressure be applied in Berlin and Vienna on Freud's behalf.
Freud also had support from American diplomats, notably his ex-patient and American ambassador to France, William Bullitt. He also intervened by phone call during the Gestapo interrogation of Anna Freud. The departure from Vienna began in stages throughout April and May By the end of the month, arrangements for Freud's own departure for London had become stalled, mired in a legally tortuous and financially extortionate process of negotiation with the Nazi authorities.
Freud was allocated to Dr. Sauerwald read Freud's books to further learn about him and became sympathetic towards his situation. Though required to disclose details of all Freud's bank accounts to his superiors and to arrange the destruction of the historic library of books housed in the offices of the IPA, Sauerwald did neither. Instead he removed evidence of Freud's foreign bank accounts to his own safe-keeping and arranged the storage of the IPA library in the Austrian National Library where it remained until the end of the war.
Though Sauerwald's intervention lessened the financial burden of the "flight" tax on Freud's declared assets, other substantial charges were levied in relation to the debts of the IPA and the valuable collection of antiquities Freud possessed.
Unable to access his own accounts, Freud turned to Princess Marie Bonaparte , the most eminent and wealthy of his French followers, who had travelled to Vienna to offer her support and it was she who made the necessary funds available. They left Vienna on the Orient Express on 4 June, accompanied by their housekeeper and a doctor, arriving in Paris the following day where they stayed as guests of Princess Bonaparte before travelling overnight to London arriving at Victoria Station on 6 June.
Representatives of the Royal Society called with the Society's Charter for Freud, who had been elected a Foreign Member in , to sign himself into membership. Princess Bonaparte arrived towards the end of June to discuss the fate of Freud's four elderly sisters left behind in Vienna. Her subsequent attempts to get them exit visas failed and they would all die in Nazi concentration camps. In early Sauerwald arrived in London in mysterious circumstances where he met Freud's brother Alexander.
Responding to a plea from his wife, Anna Freud wrote to confirm that Sauerwald "used his office as our appointed commissar in such a manner as to protect my father". Her intervention helped secure his release from jail in He continued to see patients there until the terminal stages of his illness.
He also worked on his last books, Moses and Monotheism , published in German in and in English the following year  and the uncompleted An Outline of Psychoanalysis which was published posthumously. By mid-September , Freud's cancer of the jaw was causing him increasingly severe pain and had been declared to be inoperable. The last book he read, Balzac 's La Peau de chagrin , prompted reflections on his own increasing frailty and a few days later he turned to his doctor, friend and fellow refugee, Max Schur , reminding him that they had previously discussed the terminal stages of his illness: Now it is nothing but torture and makes no sense.
This proposes that Schur was absent from Freud's deathbed when a third and final dose of morphine was administered by Dr Josephine Stross, a colleague of Anna Freud's, leading to Freud's death around midnight on 23 September Three days after his death Freud's body was cremated at the Golders Green Crematorium in North London, with Harrods acting as funeral directors, on the instructions of his son, Ernst. Freud's ashes were later placed in the crematorium's Ernest George Columbarium.
They rest on a plinth designed by his son, Ernst,  in a sealed  ancient Greek krater painted with Dionysian scenes that Freud had received as a gift from Princess Bonaparte and which he had kept in his study in Vienna for many years. After his wife, Martha, died in , her ashes were also placed in the urn. Freud began his study of medicine at the University of Vienna in He entered private practice in neurology for financial reasons, receiving his M.
He intervened in the important debates about aphasia with his monograph of , Zur Auffassung der Aphasien , in which he coined the term agnosia and counselled against a too locationist view of the explanation of neurological deficits.
Like his contemporary Eugen Bleuler , he emphasized brain function rather than brain structure. Freud was also an early researcher in the field of cerebral palsy , which was then known as "cerebral paralysis". He published several medical papers on the topic, and showed that the disease existed long before other researchers of the period began to notice and study it.
He also suggested that William John Little , the man who first identified cerebral palsy, was wrong about lack of oxygen during birth being a cause. Instead, he suggested that complications in birth were only a symptom. Freud hoped that his research would provide a solid scientific basis for his therapeutic technique. The goal of Freudian therapy, or psychoanalysis, was to bring repressed thoughts and feelings into consciousness in order to free the patient from suffering repetitive distorted emotions.
Classically, the bringing of unconscious thoughts and feelings to consciousness is brought about by encouraging a patient to talk about dreams and engage in free association, in which patients report their thoughts without reservation and make no attempt to concentrate while doing so. Transference was first seen as a regrettable phenomenon that interfered with the recovery of repressed memories and disturbed patients' objectivity, but by , Freud had come to see it as an essential part of the therapeutic process.
The origin of Freud's early work with psychoanalysis can be linked to Josef Breuer. Freud credited Breuer with opening the way to the discovery of the psychoanalytical method by his treatment of the case of Anna O. In November , Breuer was called in to treat a highly intelligent year-old woman Bertha Pappenheim for a persistent cough that he diagnosed as hysterical.
He found that while nursing her dying father, she had developed a number of transitory symptoms, including visual disorders and paralysis and contractures of limbs, which he also diagnosed as hysterical. Breuer began to see his patient almost every day as the symptoms increased and became more persistent, and observed that she entered states of absence.
He found that when, with his encouragement, she told fantasy stories in her evening states of absence her condition improved, and most of her symptoms had disappeared by April Following the death of her father in that month her condition deteriorated again. Breuer recorded that some of the symptoms eventually remitted spontaneously, and that full recovery was achieved by inducing her to recall events that had precipitated the occurrence of a specific symptom.
In the early s, Freud used a form of treatment based on the one that Breuer had described to him, modified by what he called his "pressure technique" and his newly developed analytic technique of interpretation and reconstruction. According to Freud's later accounts of this period, as a result of his use of this procedure most of his patients in the mids reported early childhood sexual abuse. He believed these stories, which he used as the basis for his seduction theory , but then he came to believe that they were fantasies.
He explained these at first as having the function of "fending off" memories of infantile masturbation, but in later years he wrote that they represented Oedipal fantasies, stemming from innate drives that are sexual and destructive in nature. Another version of events focuses on Freud's proposing that unconscious memories of infantile sexual abuse were at the root of the psychoneuroses in letters to Fliess in October , before he reported that he had actually discovered such abuse among his patients.
The patients were subjected to considerable pressure to "reproduce" infantile sexual abuse "scenes" that Freud was convinced had been repressed into the unconscious. He reported that even after a supposed "reproduction" of sexual scenes the patients assured him emphatically of their disbelief.
As well as his pressure technique, Freud's clinical procedures involved analytic inference and the symbolic interpretation of symptoms to trace back to memories of infantile sexual abuse. As a medical researcher, Freud was an early user and proponent of cocaine as a stimulant as well as analgesic.
He believed that cocaine was a cure for many mental and physical problems, and in his paper "On Coca" he extolled its virtues. Between and he wrote several articles recommending medical applications, including its use as an antidepressant.
He narrowly missed out on obtaining scientific priority for discovering its anesthetic properties of which he was aware but had mentioned only in passing. Freud also recommended cocaine as a cure for morphine addiction. His claim that Fleischl-Marxow was cured of his addiction was premature, though he never acknowledged he had been at fault.
Fleischl-Marxow developed an acute case of "cocaine psychosis" , and soon returned to using morphine, dying a few years later after more suffering from intolerable pain. The application as an anesthetic turned out to be one of the few safe uses of cocaine, and as reports of addiction and overdose began to filter in from many places in the world, Freud's medical reputation became somewhat tarnished.
After the "Cocaine Episode"  Freud ceased to publicly recommend use of the drug, but continued to take it himself occasionally for depression, migraine and nasal inflammation during the early s, before discontinuing in The concept of the unconscious was central to Freud's account of the mind. Freud believed that while poets and thinkers had long known of the existence of the unconscious, he had ensured that it received scientific recognition in the field of psychology.
The concept made an informal appearance in Freud's writings. The unconscious was first introduced in connection with the phenomenon of repression, to explain what happens to ideas that are repressed. Freud stated explicitly that the concept of the unconscious was based on the theory of repression. He postulated a cycle in which ideas are repressed, but remain in the mind, removed from consciousness yet operative, then reappear in consciousness under certain circumstances.
The postulate was based upon the investigation of cases of traumatic hysteria, which revealed cases where the behavior of patients could not be explained without reference to ideas or thoughts of which they had no awareness.
This fact, combined with the observation that such behavior could be artificially induced by hypnosis, in which ideas were inserted into people's minds, suggested that ideas were operative in the original cases, even though their subjects knew nothing of them. Freud, like Josef Breuer, found the hypothesis that hysterical manifestations were generated by ideas to be not only warranted, but given in observation. Disagreement between them arose when they attempted to give causal explanations of their data: Breuer favored a hypothesis of hypnoid states , while Freud postulated the mechanism of defense.
Richard Wollheim comments that given the close correspondence between hysteria and the results of hypnosis, Breuer's hypothesis appears more plausible, and that it is only when repression is taken into account that Freud's hypothesis becomes preferable. Freud originally allowed that repression might be a conscious process, but by the time he wrote his second paper on the "Neuro-Psychoses of Defence" , he apparently believed that repression, which he referred to as "the psychical mechanism of unconscious defense", occurred on an unconscious level.
Freud further developed his theories about the unconscious in The Interpretation of Dreams and in Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious , where he dealt with condensation and displacement as inherent characteristics of unconscious mental activity. Freud presented his first systematic statement of his hypotheses about unconscious mental processes in , in response to an invitation from the London Society of Psychical Research to contribute to its Proceedings.
In , Freud expanded that statement into a more ambitious metapsychological paper, entitled "The Unconscious". In both these papers, when Freud tried to distinguish between his conception of the unconscious and those that predated psychoanalysis, he found it in his postulation of ideas that are simultaneously latent and operative. Freud believed that the function of dreams is to preserve sleep by representing as fulfilled wishes that would otherwise awaken the dreamer.
In Freud's theory dreams are instigated by the daily occurrences and thoughts of everyday life. His claim that they function as wish fulfillments is based on an account of the "dreamwork" in terms of a transformation of "secondary process" thought, governed by the rules of language and the reality principle, into the "primary process" of unconscious thought governed by the pleasure principle, wish gratification and the repressed sexual scenarios of childhood.
In order to preserve sleep the dreamwork disguises the repressed or "latent" content of the dream in an interplay of words and images which Freud describes in terms of condensation, displacement and distortion.
This produces the "manifest content" of the dream as recounted in the dream narrative. For Freud an unpleasant manifest content may still represent the fulfilment of a wish on the level of the latent content. In the clinical setting Freud encouraged free association to the dream's manifest content in order to facilitate access to its latent content. Freud believed interpreting dreams in this way could provide important insights into the formation of neurotic symptoms and contribute to the mitigation of their pathological effects.
Freud's theory of psychosexual development proposes that, following on from the initial polymorphous perversity of infantile sexuality, the sexual "drives" pass through the distinct developmental phases of the oral , the anal , and the phallic.
Though these phases then give way to a latency stage of reduced sexual interest and activity from the age of five to puberty, approximately , they leave, to a greater or lesser extent, a "perverse" and bisexual residue which persists during the formation of adult genital sexuality. Freud argued that neurosis or perversion could be explained in terms of fixation or regression to these phases whereas adult character and cultural creativity could achieve a sublimation of their perverse residue.
After Freud's later development of the theory of the Oedipus complex this normative developmental trajectory becomes formulated in terms of the child's renunciation of incestuous desires under the phantasised threat of or phantasised fact of, in the case of the girl castration.
Freud hoped to prove that his model was universally valid and turned to ancient mythology and contemporary ethnography for comparative material arguing that totemism reflected a ritualized enactment of a tribal Oedipal conflict.
Freud proposed that the human psyche could be divided into three parts: Id, ego and super-ego. Freud discussed this model in the essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle , and fully elaborated upon it in The Ego and the Id , in which he developed it as an alternative to his previous topographic schema i. The id is the completely unconscious, impulsive, childlike portion of the psyche that operates on the "pleasure principle" and is the source of basic impulses and drives; it seeks immediate pleasure and gratification.
Freud acknowledged that his use of the term Id das Es , "the It" derives from the writings of Georg Groddeck. The feeling of excitement which accompanies stimulus by alcohol is completely lacking; the characteristic urge for immediate activity which alcohol produces is also absent.
One senses an increase of self-control and feels more vigorous and more capable of work; on the other hand, if one works, one misses that heightening of the mental powers which alcohol, tea, or coffee induce. One is simply normal, and soon finds it difficult to believe that one is under the influence of any drug at all.
I have tested this effect of coca, which wards off hunger, sleep, and fatigue and steels one to intellectual effort, some dozen times on myself; I had no opportunity to engage in physical work. The effect of a moderate dose of coca fades away so gradually that, in normal circumstances, it is difficult to define its duration. If one works intensively while under the influence of coca, after from three to five hours there is a decline in the feeling of well-being, and a further dose of coca is necessary in order to ward off fatigue.
The effect of coca seems to last longer if no heavy muscular work is undertaken. Opinion is unanimous that the euphoria induced by coca is not followed by any feeling of lassitude or other state of depression. I should be inclined to think that after moderate doses 0. In my own case, at any rate, I have noticed that even on the day after taking coca my condition compares favorably with the norm.
I should be inclined to explain the possibility of a lasting gain in strength, such as has often been claimed for coca by the totality of such effects. It seems probable, in the light of reports which I shall refer to later, that coca, if used protractedly but in moderation, is not detrimental to the body.
Von Anrep treated animals for thirty days with moderate doses of cocaine and detected no detrimental effects on their bodily functions.
It seems to me noteworthy — and I discovered this in myself and in other observers who were capable of judging such things — that a first dose or even repeated doses of coca produce no compulsive desire to use the stimulant further; on the contrary, one feels a certain unmotivated aversion to the substance. Coca is a far more potent and far less harmful stimulant than alcohol, and its widespread utilization is hindered at present only by its high cost.
Like Mantegazza and Frankl, I have experienced personally how the painful symptoms attendant upon large meals — viz, a feeling of pressure and fullness in the stomach, discomfort and a disinclination to work — disappear with eructation following small doses of cocaine 0.
Time and again I have brought such relief to my colleagues; and twice I observed how the nausea resulting from gastronomic excesses responded in a short time to the effects of cocaine, and gave way to a normal desire to eat and a feeling of bodily well-being.
In , before beginning studies leading to the development of psychoanalysis, Freud was 28, a fledgling physician with a fiancee but without funds to wed. A paper by German physician Theodor Aschenbrandt seemed to provide the way. Conquistadores had noted the stimulant effect of coca leaves on Andean Indians.
Aschenbrandt's paper triggered Freud's studies. It gave him an emotional lift, producing what he described as "normal euphoria. He coolly summarized his experiences in his notes: This result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant aftermaths which accompany exhilaration thru alcoholic means.
He found it not only useful in overcoming depression but effective against some purely physiological complaints. He didn't administer it indiscriminately.
Tho he initially believed it wasn't habit-forming, he found its effects on patients too unpredictable to justify widespread use. Freud realized Erlenmeyer was correct. He was also one of the 1st to become dependent on it. Freud's studies are considered basic to psychopharmacology. But they didn't lead to the discovery of its most effective clinical use.
He abandoned his interest in cocaine just after he suggested that a colleague, Karl "Coca" Roller, experiment with its use in easing the pain of eye surgery. Paperback , pages. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Cocaine Papers , please sign up. Lists with This Book. I'd heard about Freud's cocaine studies but never read about them until coming across this in a used book store.
It was the eighties and cocaine was all the rage. I'd tried it, but couldn't see what the fuss was about. If fresh squeezed orange juice was illegal and expensive, I supposed there'd be a craze for that too. Still, it was intriguing that such a luminary as Freud would be implicated in the great evil. The book is a series of essays by Freud, about Freud and about cocaine. Freud's ultima I'd heard about Freud's cocaine studies but never read about them until coming across this in a used book store.
Freud's ultimate conclusions were true. Cocaine can increase alertness and libido, improve reaction time, depress hunger and serve as an anesthetic, but it is also, for some people at least, habit-forming. It is also, of course, along with heroin, a major source of revenue for the CIA, its proxies and agents. Aug 09, mark rated it really liked it Recommends it for: The only thing that now is different is the introduction of a new way to take the drug, smoking it, aka Crack Cocaine.
My only problem with the book is in its redundancy. The stories and accounts are often repeated, albeit sometimes, not always, from different perspectives. He became the leading medical authority on the drug. The Editor inserts a chapter on Sherlock Holmes, the fictional British consulting detective, written by Dr. David Musto in Holmes was also a user of cocaine. Musto posits that Holmes sought treatment from Freud and together they discovered psychoanalysis — being that they both used the same manner of analyzing data to reconstruct the how and why of human behavior, i.
What these great thinkers had in common was an uncommon power of observation, which they then used to form conclusions about human behavior in general, and the literary and language skills to write about what they saw and surmised.
Sigmund Freud Papers Manuscript Division 2,; Sigmund Freud Papers: General Correspondence, to ; Sigmund Freud Papers: Interviews and Recollections, to ; Sigmund Freud Papers: Oversize, to ; Sigmund Freud Papers: Family Papers, to ; Sigmund Freud Papers: .
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About this Collection Digitization of this collection was made possible by The Polonsky Foundation. The papers of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud () span the years from about the 6th century B.C.E. (a small Greek statue) to , with the bulk of material dating from to - Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud was the first major social scientist to propose a unified theory to understand and explain human behavior. No theory that has followed has been more complete, more complex, or more controversial.
Allied to the Sigmund Freud Collection at the Library of Congress are papers and correspondence of other eminent psychoanalysts, including Anna Freud, Jacob Arlow, Heinz Hartmann, E. Jacobson, etc. The SFA was one of the original trustees of the Freud Museum in London. Sigmund Freud research paper writing prompts. Writing prompts can be extremely useful when you have to write a research paper or just your weekly homework.