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Violent video games research: consensus or confusion?

A Brief History of Violence in Video Games

❶However, in contrast to, Bushman et al, Carnagey et al used 3x3 factorial experimental design.

Background

Introduction
Considerations for Future Research

In recent years, technological advances have introduced many new forms of entertainment, one of the most popular being video games. Since their introduction, professionals and parents have become concerned with the addictive power that video games can have on people, particularly children and adolescents.

As defining aggression as any thoughts or behaviors related with the intention to cause harm. Many scholars have been researching videogames' effects on children. The most popular aspect of videogame research is whether or not games increase aggression. There are many views as to whether video game violence causes children to behave violently or aggressively.

Many children play violent games because that is what most people are playing and they feel that they need to do so as well. Violence is not only in video games but also in all other forms of media.

Yet, television and film studies show that aggressive adolescents are more susceptible to media violence than are non-aggressive adolescents page However, some who play video games are entranced by the violent aggressive behaviors demonstrated in the games and may even act out behaviors learned from playing them.

Now the question being the correlation between violent video games and violent aggressive behavior demonstrated by those who play these games a coincidence or do these games actually enhance these antisocial behaviors? A Test of the General Aggression Model. Has conducted a true experimental design. The goal of this study was to design a General Aggression Model which is the social knowledge structures develop over time in learn processes, such as learning how to perceive, interpret and respond to event in physical and social environment.

This model will help to determine whether exposure to media violence, in the form of video games, can temporarily create or increase aggressive behaviors. The participants were undergraduate students men and women enrolled in introductory psychology courses. They were randomly assigned to play either a violent or a nonviolent game for 20 minutes.

The result of this study showed that violent video game participants expected more aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors from the main characters in the stories. This result supported the researchers hypothesis.

One limitation was that the sample groups were only focused on undergraduate students in introductory psychology courses, there could be many confounding factor why most psychology student responded to the experiment.

The strongest aspect of the study was that although the General Aggression Model is difficult to qualified and analysis due to various related research groups but they did used careful measurement for the aggressive responses. In the same year, a board was established in the United States to look into video games and rate them according to their content Siwek, The board is known as the entertainment software rating board ESRB.

The other video game that attracted media attention was Rapelay, produced in Siwek, The video game required players to rape and stalk a woman and her two girls. Such video games are said to cause behavioral change among children. There have been several incidents that are linked to video games, such as the massacre at Columbine High School that claimed 13 lives.

Laws have been enacted to ban or control the sale of video games. For example, on the 27th of June , the Supreme Court of the United States overturned the law in California that banned the sale of video games to minors Siwek, The court ruled that the law violated the freedom of speech even though the state has an obligation to protect kids from harm.

Another aspect that should be noted regarding video games is that boys spend more time playing than girls. Most of the negative effects as a result of playing video games among children can be blamed on the violent scenes contained in these games. When a child spends an extended amount of time playing such video games, they becomes socially isolated.

The child who spends many hours a day playing video games will have little time to meet and make new friends. They may in turn become more depressed and lonely in their homes. Children will also spend little time on other activities such as sports, reading, and doing homework. The child becomes socially inactive since they do not get involved in social activities. Some video games teach children wrong values Gunter, Most of the children who spend much of their time playing video games are likely to perform poorly in school.

A solid number of video games are addictive. Rather than studying or completing homework, a child spends time playing video games. As a result, poor performance will be seen at schools.

This means that a child who ends up spending most of their time playing video games does not get a chance to think creatively or independently. Since they do not get enough bodily exercise, children who spend the majority of their time playing video games are likely to suffer from video-induced seizures, obesity and skeletal, muscular and postural disorders like tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, among others.

Video games promote children to associate happiness and pleasure with the capability to cause pain to others. They develop the feeling that in order to be happy, one has to make other people suffer. Video games teach the player to be dependent and since the child is often left alone while playing a video game, he or she can develop selfish behavior.

A certain study that was done at a Minneapolis-based national institute for media indicated that kids can get addicted to video games and exhibit social phobias. The interactive quality of video games is quite different from passively viewing movies or television.

The games allow players to be active participants in the script. The players who are able to benefit from acts of violence are then able to proceed to the next level Sherry, As a negative result of playing video games, violence in children has shown an increase. There are many incidents of violent behavior among children who play violent video games worldwide Gunter, One of the high-profile incidents is the Columbine High School massacre that was caused by year-old Dylan Klebold, and year-old Harris Eric.

It was later revealed that the two shooters in the massacre were frequent players of weapon-based combat games. It was also noted that the two shooters used to play Wolfeinstein 3D and Doom , games which are violent. After the incident, many newspaper articles claimed that the key cause of that incident was violent video games. The mother of the deceased claimed that Noah was stabbed because of the obsession his friend had with the video game known as Mortal Kombat.

She alleged that the child who killed Noah was obsessed with the game, and thought he was one of the characters in the game named Cyrax. In the game, Cyrax uses a finishing move whereby he grabs the opponent and stabs him in the chest. It was alleged that this was the move that motivated the killing of that child.

There are many other incidents that were caused by the effects of playing video games. A report that was compiled by the FBI in the year showed that the playing of video games among children was one of the behavioral traits linked to school shootings. The increase in physical bullying in many schools can also be linked to the popularity of video games that contain violent content. When playing video games, players are rewarded for simulating violence.

This enhances the learning of violent behavior among the children who find pleasure in violent video games. When violence is rewarded while playing video games, players tend to develop aggressive behavior. As noted earlier, video games desensitize players to real-life violence. The exposure to video games causes a reduction in P amplitudes that are contained in the brain. After children experience violence while playing video games, they are likely to develop a fear of becoming victims of violent acts.

According to the report compiled by six leading national medical associations in , children do not trust their fellow children and hence will develop violent, self-protective measures. The exposure to cruel video games also leads to reduced empathy among the players. From a survey conducted by Jeanne Funk in , video games are the only media linked or associated with low empathy.

After lacking empathy as a consequence of violent video games, these children are likely to be violent. Repetition of actions when one is playing a video game affects the subconscious mind, hence a behavioral script is developed. An example of a behavioral script is that developed by drivers.

It urges the driver to first get into a car, fasten their safety belt and then start the car. Similarly, video games induce a child to develop a behavioral script that urges them to respond violently to certain situations Gunter, Playing video games teaches children that violence is an acceptable way of solving their conflicts. Those who play video games, especially games with violent content, do not develop the belief that using non-violence means can solve a problem.

They tend to be less forgiving when compared to those children who play non-violent video games Sherry, Children tend to confuse real-world violence with video game violence.

After fantasizing about the violence in video games, children are likely to fight in schools and in the streets. New video games allow a lot of physical interaction with the players. Some video games train players on how to be a killer. For example, in , the Marine Corps in the United States authorized the release of Doom 11 , which was a violent video game. The game was previously used to train marine soldiers.

Such games can train children to be high-profile killers. Also, most video games have portrayed a negative attitude towards women. Violence against women is likely to increase in a child who plays brutal video games Gunter,


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Video Game Violence has been a controversial topic for many years, dating back to even the most simple classic video games like Ms. Pac-Man, Centipede and Space Invaders, eventually pushing into more modern games like Grand Theft Auto V and Call of Duty: Black Ops. This investigation attempts to expand and analyze the idea that due to the .

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This would require research of its own, but would help video game research tremendously. With the constant changes in society, however, this is something that is always evolving. Desensitization due to movies, the news, and video games themselves has greatly changed the way we view media violence.

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The Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior and the Relationship to School Shootings David Bond Outstanding Honors truehuppv.cf A body of research suggests that violent video games cause short term and/or. Pete Etchells and Chris Chambers: A new paper arguing that there is consensus that violent video games cause aggression highlights the pitfalls of peer review.