The prevalence rates we found are slightly higher than the rates reported by Thomas et al in , also using the GPRD: Alonso and colleagues reported incidence rates of 7. An overall incidence rate of MS of 3. The downward trend in incidence that we found is in contrast to studies in Denmark, where the female incidence of MS has almost doubled since the s while male incidence has remained constant.
Moreover, separate surveys carried out and analysed at different times may be subject to methodological differences. It is not clear why our study has detected a decreasing incidence while others have suggested increasing incidence.
Changes in awareness of MS and the challenges of diagnosing MS may account for changes incidence over time. However, we could identify no specific reason why the methodology or data source we used should have had an impact on our finding of decreasing incidence of MS over the period of the study.
In the current study, the mean female-to-male ratio for MS was 2. For example, a recent analysis of trends in the sex ratio in MS for individuals born between and found a marked increase in Northern Europe not including the UK from 2.
This may be partly accounted for by changing health-related behaviours of men in recent years, perhaps having more contact with medical services than was the case historically. We are not able to identify any particular reason why the study methodology or data source could have confounded our findings regarding sex-ratio.
A recent study using HES data for the period — showed regional variations in hospital admission rates for MS in England. Early studies on MS suggested a trend with latitude with increasing prevalence in more temperate climates in Northern and Southern hemispheres. Regional variation in MS epidemiology may be due to genetic or environmental factors and interactions between them.
This is supported by studies on the effect of month of birth on subsequent risk of MS in Northern and Southern hemispheres. Further studies are needed to investigate the causative factors of MS, particularly the role of Vitamin D, genetic susceptibility factors and infective agents.
This study provides a comprehensive picture of the prevalence and incidence of MS throughout the UK over two decades. It shows that more than people in the UK were newly diagnosed with MS in and that patients with MS are living longer, leading to a rising population living with the disease.
This has important implications for resource provision in the UK. All authors were involved in drafting and reviewing the manuscript. Statistical analysis was carried out by SVM. The guarantor for the study is ISM. This grant supported study meetings but MSNTC had no input into the design of the study, collection, analysis or interpretation of the data or in the decision to submit the paper for publication.
All authors have completed the Unified Competing Interests form at http: The other authors have no non-financial interests that may be relevant to the submitted work. Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Published online Sep Received Mar 22; Accepted Aug For permission to use where not already granted under a licence please go to http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Objectives To estimate the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis MS by age and describe secular trends and geographic variations within the UK over the year period between and and hence to provide updated information on the impact of MS throughout the UK. Design A descriptive study. Background Individuals with multiple sclerosis MS can experience high levels of disability and impaired quality of life for prolonged periods.
Hypothesis This was a descriptive study. Study population The study population included all patients with acceptable data who contributed follow-up time to the database after Statistical analysis The analysis plan is shown in figure 1. Open in a separate window. Mortality rates were analysed using logistic regression models. Office for National Statistics We applied these adjusted age-specific and gender-specific incidence and prevalence rates to population statistics obtained from the Office for National Statistics ONS for the UK population to estimate the absolute numbers of new and prevalent cases of MS in the UK population in Secular trends The prevalence of MS increased by about 2.
Strengths and weaknesses of the study A major strength of this study is that it covers a representative sample of GPs spread geographically throughout the UK, and a patient population with age and sex distributions similar to those of the general UK population.
Relation to other studies The prevalence rates we found are slightly higher than the rates reported by Thomas et al in , also using the GPRD: Conclusions This study provides a comprehensive picture of the prevalence and incidence of MS throughout the UK over two decades.
Supplementary Material Web figures: Click here to view. Multiple sclerosis in the UK Service use, costs, quality of life and disability. Eur J Health Econ. S96— [ PubMed ]. Swingler RJ, Compston D. The distribution of multiple sclerosis in the United Kingdom.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; Mortality rates from multiple sclerosis: Estimating the prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the United Kingdom by using capture-recapture methodology.
Am J Epidemiol ; Incidence of multiple sclerosis in the United Kingdom: J Neurol ; Walley T, Mantgani A. Runmarker B, Andersen O. Pregnancy is associated with a lower risk of onset and a better prognosis in multiple sclerosis. Validation and validity of diagnoses in the General Practice Research Database: Estimating the prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the United Kingdom.
Temporal trends in the incidence of multiple sclerosis: The changing demographic pattern of multiple sclerosis epidemiology. Lancet Neurol ; 9: Geographical variations in sex ratio trends over time in multiple sclerosis. PLOS one ; 7: Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in the National Swedish MS register. Multiple Sclerosis ; Latitude is significantly associated with the prevalence of multiple sclerosis: Geography of hospital admissions for multiple sclerosis in England and comparison with the geography of hospital admissions for infectious mononucleosis: Observations on the prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Northern Scotland.
Some comments on the relationship of the distribution of multiple sclerosis to latitude, solar radiation and other variables. It has continuous disability that worsens as time goes by, and ten percent of all cases are this.
The last type is a very rare class called Acute Progressive Multiple Sclerosis. This kind can kill in weeks or months, in contrast with the usual years or decades. Due to the type of disease and the areas it affects, there are a great number of possible symptoms. These symptoms can fool the most experienced physician into thinking that it is a psychological disease. The most common symptoms are bouts of overwhelming fatigue, loss of coordination, muscle weakness, numbness, slurred speech, and visual difficulties.
These symptoms may occur for a number of years before one is actually diagnosed, and these symptoms will appear with little or no warning.
Attacks of these symptoms appear most often three to four years after the first incident. Multiple Sclerosis is diagnosed by a number of ways. This test maps out your brain and looks for areas that have been scarred over, or 'plaques', and usually takes an hour. White spots on normally gray areas usually signify a plaque. Next, a lumbar puncture, more commonly known as a spinal tap, is done. This test involves some discomfort, and although the actual puncture lasts only fifteen minutes, the procedure can leave the patient disabled for anywhere from two hours to two weeks.
About a week after the spinal tap is done, a series of three tests are performed to measure the time it takes for impulses to travel through your brain and nerves. In the final test, the electrodiagnostic, an electric current is passed through certain pressure points, and sensors on the head, chest, and back record just how fast the impulses are transmitting through your body and brain.
With the positioning of the sensors, the technician can determine where a slowdown, if any, is occurring. The disease cannot be cured, and treatments are few. There is no common treatment that researchers can agree on. Some swear by diet treatments, which have been found by patients in nonclinical studies to slow or arrest the advancement of Multiple Sclerosis. Usually the diet therapies involve a few months eliminating allergic foods from your diet, and since foods that are slightly allergic are usually your favorite foods, it's a very hard treatment to stick to.
Others swear by drugs and the like, such as ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone , which is the most commonly prescribed treatment, or copolymer I and cyclosporine, which have shown promise in laboratory studies.
The statistics of Multiple Sclerosis are puzzling at best. For example, the fact that there are many more cases in the northern latitudes than in the southern latitudes is one thing that confuses researchers.
As you approach the equator, patients suffering with Multiple Sclerosis are almost zero. Also, most victims are between the ages of twenty and forty-five years old, with the majority of them being women.
Multiple Sclerosis also affects more people of the Caucasian persuasion. Multiple Sclerosis affects an estimated three hundred fifty to five hundred thousand Americans, with eight thousand more cases being reported each year. Fortunately, the average life span of a patient with Multiple Sclerosis is seventy-five percent of normal, and only a quarter of all diagnosed will ever need a wheelchair.
Multiple Sclerosis is one of the most confusing diseases that has ever afflicted mankind. More and more possible treatments are found, but still no cure.
So people with Multiple Sclerosis must learn to live with the disease, learn to cope. And others should learn more about the disease, so it isn't ignored in the future.
Multiple sclerosis Essay, term paper, research paper: Medicine See all college papers and term papers on Medicine. Need a different custom essay on Medicine? Buy a custom essay on Medicine. Need a custom research paper on Medicine?
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Multiple Sclerosis Research Papers delve into a sample of a paper ordered for an analysis of the degenerative disorder.
Introduction Multiple Sclerosis is a demyelization disorder of the central nervous system and the spinal cord; which leads to patches of plaques in the regions.
- This research paper, will discuss the pathophysiological, psychosocial, economic and cognitive effects which Multiple Sclerosis (MS) has on the affected individual, family and society. It will make mention of how a professional nurse would support the individual, the family/carer. View Multiple sclerosis Research Papers on truehuppv.cf for free.
Health term papers (paper ) on Multiple Sclerosis A+ Research Paper : Introduction Multiple Sclerosis Stephanie **** Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, often disabling disease that randomly attacks the ce. Term paper Incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the UK – a descriptive study in the General Practice Research Database I S Mackenzie, 1 S V Morant, 1 G A Bloomfield, .